Plant based information sources

Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ (2002) Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr. 5:645–654

Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ. (1999) The Oxford Vegetarian Study: An overview. Am J Clin Nutr.70 (suppl):525S–531S.

Braithwaite N, Fraser HS, Modeste N, Broome H, King R. (2003) Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and vegetarian status among Seventh-day Adventists in Barbados: Preliminary results. Eth Dis.13:34–39.

Burdge GC, Wootton SA. (2002) Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexanenoic acids in young women. Br J Nutr. 126:3032-9.

Burtin P. (2003) Nutritional value of seaweeds. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem. 2(4):498-503.

Clarys, P., P. Deriemaeker, et al. (2013). Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Nutrition journal 12: 82.

Clarys, P., T. Deliens, et al. (2014). Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Nutrients 6(3): 1318-1332.

Davis B, Kris-Etherton PM. (2003). Achieving optimal essential fatty acide status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr. (3 Suppl): 640S-6S.

Donaldson MS. (2000) Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Ann Nutr Metab.44:229–234.

Doughman SD, Krupanidhi S, Sanjeevi CB. (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA. Current Diabetes Rev. 3(3):198-203.

Ferdowsian HR, Barnard ND. (2009) Effects of plant based diets on plasma lipids. Am J Cardiol.1;104(7):947-56.

Fleming DJ, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Tucker KL, Wilson PW, Wood RJ. (1998) Dietary determinants of iron stores in a free-living elderly population: The Framingham Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr.67:722–733.

Fraser GE (1999) Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(suppl): 532S–538S.

Fraser, G., S. Katuli, et al. (2014). Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2. Public health nutrition: 1-9.

Geppert J, Kraft V, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B. (2006) Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 95(4):779-86.

Geppert J, Kraft V, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B. (2005) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in vegetarians effectively increases omega-3 index: a randomized trial. Lipids.40:807–814.

Hallberg L, Hulthen L. (2000) Prediction of dietary iron absorption: an algorithm for calculating absorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr.71:1147–1160.

Hammond BG, Mayhew DA, Holson JF, Nemec MD, Mast RW, Sander WJ. (2001) Safety assessment of DHA-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 33(2):205-7.

Hebbelinck M, Clarys P. (2001) Physical growth and development of vegetarian children and adolescents. In: Sabate J editors. Vegetarian Nutrition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; p. 173–193.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V. (2001) Total homocysteine, vitamin B12, and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem.47:1094–1101.

Hunt JR, Roughead ZK. (1999) Nonheme-iron absorption, fecal ferritin excretion, and blood indexes of iron status in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian diets for 8 wk. Am J Clin Nutr.69:944–952.

Hunt JR, Roughead ZK. (2000) Adaptation of iron absorption in men consuming diets with high or low iron bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr.71:94–102.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, et al. (2005) Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am J Clin Nutr.81:380–387.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustin LS, Ludwig DS, et al. (2003) Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr.78(suppl):610S–616S.

Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB. (2002) Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA.288:2554–2560.

Kahan, S. and L. J. Cheskin (2014). Review: Vegetarian diets reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than omnivorous diets. Annals of internal medicine 160(12): JC3.

Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC. (2014) Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(Supplement 1):378S-385S. [Epub ahead of print]

Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, et al. (1999) Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: Detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(suppl):516S–524S.

Koertge J, Weidner G, Elliott-Eller M, Scherwitz L, Merritt-Worden TA, Marlin R, et al. (2003) Improvement in medical risk factors and quality of life in women and men with coronary artery disease in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. Am J Cardiol.91:1316–1322.

Koushik A, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Beeson WL, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, et al. (2007) Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst.99:1471–1483.

Krajcovicova M, Buckova K, Klimes I, Sebokova E. (2003) Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab.47:183–185.

Kroes R, Schaefer EJ, Squire RA, Williams GM. (2003) A review of the safety of DHA45-oil. Food Chem Toxicol. 41(11):1433-46.

Lane, K., E. Derbyshire, et al. (2014). Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the literature. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 54(5): 572-579.

Lewis NM, Seburg S, Flanagan NL. (2000) Enriched eggs as a source of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans. Poult Sci. 79(7):971-4.

Meier T, Christen O. (2013) Environmental impacts of dietary recommendations and dietary styles: Germany as an example. Environ Sci Technol. 47(2):877-88. doi: 10.1021/es302152v. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Messina V, Mangels AR. (2001) Considerations in planning vegan diets: Children. J Am Diet Assoc.101:661–669.

Messina V, Mangels R, Messina M. (2004) The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers

NHS Choices (2013) The Eatwell plate [online] Available at: [ Accessed 18 November 2014]

Orlich, M. J. and G. E. Fraser (2014). Vegetarian diets in the Adventist Health Study 2: a review of initial published findings. The American journal of clinical nutrition 100(Supplement 1): 353S-358S.

Orlich, M. J., P. N. Singh, et al. (2013). Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA internal medicine 173(13): 1230-1238.

Pettersen, B. J., R. Anousheh, et al. (2012). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public health nutrition 15(10): 1909-1916.

Position of the American Dietetic Association (2009) Vegetarian Diets J Am Diet Assoc.109:1266-1282

Public Health England (2011) SACN Dietary Reference Values for Energy [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 November 2014] 

Rizzo, N. S., K. Jaceldo-Siegl, et al. (2013). Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 113(12): 1610-1619.

Rosell M, Appleby P, Key T. (2005) Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians. Public Health Nutr.8:870–875.

Rosell M, Appleby P, Spencer E, Key T. (2006) Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Int J Obesity.30:1389–1396

Sanders TA. (2009) DHA status of vegetarians. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 81(2-3):137-41. Epub 2009 Jun 4.

Sirtori CR, Eberini I, Arnoldi A. (2007) Hypocholesterolaemic effects of soya proteins: Results of recent studies are predictable from the Anderson meta-analysis data. Br J Nutr.97:816–822.

Snowdon DA, Phillips RL. (1985) Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes?.Am J Public Health.75:507–512.

Soret S, Mejia A, Batech M, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Harwatt H, Sabaté J. (2014) Climate change mitigation and health effects of varied dietary patterns in real-life settings throughout North America. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(Supplement 1):490S-495S. [Epub ahead of print]

Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. (2003) Diet and body-mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.27:728–734.

Stevens CJ, Leach AM, Dale S, Galloway JN. (2014) Personal nitrogen footprint tool for the United Kingdom. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 16(7):1563-9. doi: 10.1039/c3em00690e.

Sticher MA, Smith CB, Davidson S. (2010) Reducing heart disease through the vegetarian diet using primary prevention. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 22(3):134-9.

Tantamango-Bartley, Y., K. Jaceldo-Siegl, et al. (2013). Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 22(2): 286-294.

The Vegetarian Society [nd] [online] Available at: [Accessed July 2010]

Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE (2009) Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 32(5): 791-796

Tonstad, S., K. Stewart, et al. (2013). Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 23(4): 292-299.

Trapp CB, Barnard ND. (2010) Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep.10(2):152-8.

Vang A, Singh PN, Lee JW, Haddad EH. (2008) Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from the Adventist Health Studies. Ann Nutr Metab.52:96–104.

Vanham D, Bidoglio G. (2014) The water footprint of Milan. Water Sci Technol. 69(4):789-95. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.759.

Vanham D, Hoekstra AY, Bidoglio G. (2013) Potential water saving through changes in European diets. Environ Int. 61:45-56. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Villegas R, Gao YT, Yang G, Li HL, Elasy TA, Zheng W, et al. (2008) Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr.87:162–167.

Villegas R, Shu XO, Gao YT, Yang G, Elasy T, Li H, et al. (2008) Vegetable but not fruit consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese women. J Nutr.138:574–580.

Weaver C, Proulx W, Heaney R. (1999) Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr.70(suppl):543S–548S

Williams CM, Burdge G. (2006) Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources. Proc Nutr Soc. 65(1):42-50.

Williams CM, Burdge G. (2006) Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources. Proc Nutr Soc.65:42–50.

World Cancer Research Fund. (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research

Yokoyama, Y., K. Nishimura, et al. (2014). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine 174(4): 577-587.

Young VR, Pellett PL. (1994) Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr.59(suppl):1203S–1212S.

Melina V, Craig W, Levin S (2016) American Dietetic Association: Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 116(12):1970-1980

Amit, M. (2010) Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents. Paediatr. Child Health. 15(5): 303-308

Tonstad, S., Butler, T., Yan, R., Fraser, G.E. (2009) Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32(5): 791-796

Davey, G.K., Spencer, E.A., Appleby, P.N., Allen, N.E., Knox, K.H., Key, T.J. (2002) EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33,883 meat- eaters and 31,546 non meat-eaters in the U.K. Public Health Nutr. 6(3): 259-268

Spencer, E.A., Appleby, P.N., Davey, G.K., Key, T.J. (2003) Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat- eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 27(6): 728-734

Barnard, N.D., Scialli, A.R. Turner-McGrievy, G., Lanou, A.J., Glass, J. (2005) The effects of a low fat, plant based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am.J. Med. 118(9): 991-997

Barnard, N.D., Cohen, J., Jenkins, D.J., Turner-McGrievy, G., Gloede, L., Jaster, B., Seidl, K., Green, A.A., Talpers, S. (2006) A low fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 29(8): 1777-1783

Allen, N.E., Appleby, P.N., Davey, G.K., Kaaks, R., Rinaldi, S., Key, T.J. (2002) The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 11(11): 1441-1448

Appleby, P.N., Davey, G.K., Key, T.J. (2002) Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr. 5(5): 645-654

Colledge, N.R., Walker, B.R. and Ralston, S.H. (2010) Vitamin B12 in Davidson’s Principles & Practice of Medicine 1020 Churchill Livingstone Elsever

Pawlak, R. (2015) Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians? Am. J. Prev. Med. Jun; 48(6)e 11-26

Isaac, T.G., Soundarva, S., Christopher, R. Chandra S,R. (2015) Vitamin B12 deficiency: an important reversible co-morbidity in neuropsychiatric manifestations. Indian J. Psychol. Med. Jan-Mar. 37(1) 26-9

Crane, M.G., Sample, C., Patchett, S., Register U.D. (1994) Vitamin B12 studies in total vegetarians.  J. of Nutritional Med. 4: 419-430  

Inst. of Med. Food & Nutrition Board (1998) Dietary Reference intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington D.C.

Outila, T.A., Karkkainenm M.U., Seppanen, R.H., Lamberg-Allardt, C.J. (2000) Dietary intake of vitamin D in premenopausal, healthy vegans was insufficient to maintain concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter in Finland. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 100(4): 434-441

Appleby. P., Roddam, A., Allen, N., Key, T. (2007) Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(12): 1400-1406

Scientific Advisory Committee of Nutrition (2016) Vitamin D and Health. London: The Stationary Office

Scientific Advisory Committee of Nutrition (2010) Iron and Health. London: The Stationery Office 

Williams, A.G., Audsley, E., Sandars, D.l. (2006) Determining the environmental burdens and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commodities. Bedford: Cranfield University & DEFRA

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2013) Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: promoting ecological sustainability within the food system. 113: 464-477