This tool has been developed by the BDA as an aid to support reflection and is based on a framework developed by Rolfe et al.
Learning through reflection is more meaningful if you go through a structured process. There are a number of models which aid the reflective process. Some examples of models you might want to look at further are: Borton (1970), Gibbs (1998), Schon (1983) Rolfe et el (2001).
Borton developed a model of reflection based on three questions:
Rolfe et al further developed Borton’s model and developed a framework for use in clinical practice.
|What?||So what?||Now what?|
|Description stage of reflection||Theory and knowledge building stage of reflection||Action‐oriented stage of reflection|
What is the
What was my role in the situation?
What was I trying to achieve?
What actions did I take? What was the response of others?
What were the consequences
For others what feelings did it invoke
What was good/bad about the experience?
So what does this tell me / teach me/ imply/ mean about
So what was going through my mind as I reacted?
So what did I base my actions on?
So what other knowledge can I bring to the situation?
So what could be done to make it better?
So what is my new understanding of the situation?
So what broader issues arise from the situation?
Now what do I need to do in order to
Now what broader issues need to be considered if this action is to be successful?
Now what might be the consequences?
Adapted from Rolfe et al (2001)